The bones in the human body were considered as a stationary and static organ only providing support and protection to other organs of the body. But the recent studies have clearly depicted their role in the secretion of hormones and their effect on the physiological condition of the body. One of the main hormones released by the bones is Osteocalcin. It is a 49 amino-acid peptide, found abundantly in the bones and comprising of almost 2% of the total bone proteins and is released by osteoblasts both into bone matrix and the blood. Osteoblasts are the cells which are found in bone marrow and act as the basis for the formation of new bones, maintaining and remodeling of bones in future. Vitamin D also plays the identical role by providing calcium to the bones enabling the mineralization of the bones. Osteocalcin is a hormone that controls brain development, bone formation, male fertility, cognitive power, improves muscle strength and enhances testosterones in the body. It may also reduce cortisol.
Osteocalcin is activated with the help of vitamin K and it serves as a main factor in increasing bone strength and flexibility by providing calcium to the bone tissues. The hormone secretion increases during maturity period and in early days of growth in children. High level of hormone secretion can even lead to low density of bones and risk of having fractures. The blood glucose level and the production of insulin is also controlled by osteocalcin. It enhances the insulin production in the pancreas by increasing the beta cells whose function is to store and produce insulin according to the body requirements. Adiponectin is also affected by this hormone as increasing adiponectin production in fat cells in turn increases the quantity of glucose in muscle cells keeping the blood glucose level under control. The reduction in osteocalcin hormone can affect body’s insulin and glucose levels. Male fertility is affected through osteocalcin as during puberty period, osteocalcin is secreted to blood and it reaches male testicles increasing the person’s sexual ability by enhancing the amount of testosterone. It also helps increase the strength in the muscles which increases the body’s capacity of exercising and leads to more stronger bones having lower risk of fractures. According to the recent researches on the secretion of these hormones from bones, it is quite clear that osteocalcin play an important role in tackling number of disorders in the body. A lower level of osteocalcin in the body can lead to hardening of the arteries and vessels. Moreover, lower level of this hormone is associated with higher risk of chronic inflammation leading to several metabolic problems and higher body mass index making the body bulky and fat abundant. Apart from other physiological effects on the body, osteocalcin plays a role in the cognitive function and brain development in the body as lower levels of osteocalcin hormone develops increased anxiety, lower memory and the controlled and inappropriate growth of brain parts.